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Blood oranges

Citrus × sinensis

'Moro' blood orange       'Thermal Tarocco' blood orange
Blood oranges
Blood orange varieties
Light blood oranges
Common blood oranges
Deep blood oranges
Nutritional value
References
   
'Moro' blood orange
© Jorma Koskinen
   
'Thermal Tarocco' blood orange
© Jorma Koskinen
 
Blood orange used to be much of an acquired taste and compared with better-known orange varieties they had less appeal to the wider public. The traditional growing areas have long been Sicily, Spain and Morocco. Today however, with the increasing demand blood oranges are grown in places as wide apart as Hongkong, Pakistan, Egypt, India, New Zealand, China and Iran. The challenge of growing deeply pigmented oranges appeals to home growers as well as professional producers. Even with the unpredictable amount of colouration from year to year many growers and consumers cherish the inimitable flavour of blood oranges.

In addition to their rich taste and aroma blood oranges have in a study conducted in 20031 been shown to have significantly higher amounts of vitamin C (up to 40%) and antioxidants (up to 300%), such as flavonoids and anthocyanins, than regular sweet oranges. This could have health benefits in the prevention and treatment of several important diseases2 in many medical areas.

 
Blood oranges
Pigmented oranges
 LAT Citrus × sinensis  'Cara Cara' navel orange

'Sanguinelli' blood orange

'Moro' blood orange

'Doblefina' blood orange

Washington Sanguine light blood orange
 
   
This introduction to blood oranges is largely based on:

Robert Willard Hodgson: Horticultural Varieties of Citrus



Blood oranges
are the pigmented oranges of the Mediterranean basin (sanguina of Spain, sanguine of French-speaking countries, and sanguigna and sanguinella of Italy). They differ in appearance from the common sweet oranges only because under certain conditions the fruit usually exhibits pink or red colouration in the flesh and juice and on the rind. The blood oranges, in general, are characterized by a somewhat distinctive flavour that is much appreciated by connoisseurs and causes certain varieties to be regarded as among the most delicious of oranges.

Most blood orange varieties appear to have originated in the Mediterranean basin, probably first in Sicily or Malta where they have been known for several centuries. Although grown to some extent in many of the Mediterranean countries, their commercial culture is confined principally to Italy, Spain, Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia. They enjoy high favour in European markets in general and are especially popular in central and northern Europe.

The colouration of the full and deep blood oranges is associated with the development of anthocyanin pigments, whereas the pink and red colouration of the light blood oranges is caused principally by the carotenoid pigment lycopene. The conditions responsible for the development of the blood colouration are not well understood and may differ somewhat for the flesh and rind. We know that blood oranges have a high heat requirement but do not thrive in hot and humid environments. A sufficiently big difference between a high day temperature and a low enough night temperature especially towards the end of the growing period seems to be important. Rind colour is deepest in fruit that have grown partly shaded.

The richest flavour can be found in fruit grown at higher altitudes where the drop in night temperature is sharpest. The three main groups of blood oranges are presented below: the light blood oranges, the common blood oranges and the deep blood oranges.

Many of the pictures are of fruit that have grown in optimal conditions and have reached full maturity. Fluctuations in colour can be significant from one year to another.


 ENG Blood oranges, Pigmented oranges
 FRA Oranges sanguines 
 GER Blutapfelsine
 I TA Arance rosse, arance pigmentate
 ESP Naranjas pigmentadas
Photos   © Jorma Koskinen
          




 

   
Light blood oranges
Semi blood oranges
 LAT Citrus × sinensis  Light blood orange
A dark light blood orange

Ruby light blood orange
Ruby light blood orange
Ruby blood orange

  
   
The less intensely pigmented varieties comprise the light blood group (sanguigno of Italy, demi-sanguine in French) and are numerous and highly variable in behaviour. The colouration in this group is less dependable and usually varies a lot from one year to the next and even between different plantations in the same area.

Usually the colouration only occurs inside the fruit and there is no pigmentation of the peel, but curiously enough one of the well-known varieties in this group, the Washington Sanguine and other Doblefina varieties do often show some pigmentation of the skin as well when grown in optimal conditions. Sometimes the colour inside the fruit is darker at the edges of the fruit segments and fades towards the centre of the segment (top picture).

The most important feature that sets this group apart from the full and deep blood oranges is that the colouration is caused by lycopene and other carotenoid pigments in stead of the
anthocyanin of common and deep blood oranges. Lycopene colouration is lighter especially inside the fruit where it can be seen either as a shade of pink or bright red as opposed to the purple colours that can almost turn to dark violet blue caused by anthocyanin.

In addition to the varieties listed below other well-known light blood oranges include
’Sanguine’ and ’Saint Michael’  (St. Michel). The Italian Vaccaro and Sanguinello a Pignu varieties fall actually in this category as well because they as a rule produce no pigmentation in the fruit and even under optimal conditions have only a few red specks. However, both often have pigmentation on the skin and in this respect are similar to Washington Sanguine.


Photos     (1) © Jardín Mundani
(2-3) © Jorma Koskinen
         


 
 LAT Citrus × sinensis 'Cara Cara'
'Cara Cara' navel orange
'Cara Cara' navel orange
'Cara Cara' navel orange
  
 
     

Cara Cara

Cara Cara navel orange, a mutation that occurred on a Washington navel orange tree, was discovered in 1976 at Hacienda Cara Cara in Venezuela. Most tree and fruit characteristics reflect its Washington navel orange ancestry, but the flesh is deep pink, similar to the darkest of the red grapefruit varieties. Rarely, the normally green-leafed trees will produce variegated-leafed twigs. These twigs, when left to grow and fruit, may produce fruits with striped rind.

The degree of colouration is about the same as in Star Ruby grapefruit but more pink. It is due to lycopene as opposed to the anthocyanins of true blood oranges. The pulp is tender and the flavour is rich. Much of the acidity is retained even at the end of the season. As with grapefruit the colour can gradually become less intense as the season progresses.





 ENG 'Cara Cara' light blood orange
FRA Orange demi-sanguigne 'Cara Cara'
Photos   © Jorma Koskinen
       


 
 LAT Citrus × sinensis 'Variegated Cara Cara'
Variegated 'Cara Cara'
Variegated 'Cara Cara'
Variegated 'Cara Cara'
  
 
     


Variegated Cara Cara

Variegated Cara Cara has the same characteristics as the Cara Cara above except that occasionally a tree may produce budsports that have variegated leaves. If propagated or left to grow these trees may have striped fruit. The stripes disappear when the fruit matures and the colour breaks.

Because of its beautiful leaves and fruit the variegated form of Cara Cara has become very popular also as a decorative dooryard tree.






 ENG  Variegated 'Cara Cara' light blood orange
FRA  Orange demi-sanguine 'Cara Cara' panachée
Photos   © 2009 Gene Lester
       


 
 LAT Citrus × sinensis  'Maltaise Sanguine'
'Maltaise Sanguine' light blood orange

'Maltaise Sanguine' light blood orange
Maltaise Sanguine


Maltaise Tardive Barlerin
 Maltaise Tardive Barlerin
   The synonyms of 'Maltaise Sanguine' include:
Maltaise de Tunisie, Maltaise Semi-sanguine, Tunisian maltaise,
Portugaise, Portugaise Demi-sanguine and Portuguese Blood.

     
Maltaise Sanguine
Maltaise Sanguine (Maltese Blood) is of unknown origin but Malta is a high probability. It is an important variety in Tunisia and Morocco and to some extent in Algeria. It develops a strong pigmentation only in favourable conditions. In most growing areas Maltaise produces only lycopene and is therefore considered a light blood orange. It requires optimal conditions to develop pigmentation on the skin and has very little "blood", perhaps only a few specks inside.

However, especially in France Maltaise is spoken of as the Queen of Oranges and many people think it has the finest quality of any non-navel orange.
The slightly oval seedless fruit are of medium size. They are very sweet but contain enough acidity to form a nearly ideal balance. Tender flesh, good colour, high juice content and delicious flavour make Maltaise Sanguine the dessert fruit of choice for many European chefs.

The moderately vigorous tree grows to medium size and average productivity. It has a slight tendency to alternate bearing (having less fruit every other year). The medium thick rind feels soft and peels easily. The skin is finely pebbled, shiny and occasionally develops a red blush. The fruit mature in January and February and will lose quality if left to hang on the tree for a longer period. However, after picking Maltaise Sanguine stores and ships well without significant loss of quality.

This unique and important blood orange variety should receive wider recognition and deserves to be evaluated in other areas where conditions are similar to those in the district of Cape Bon, south-east of Tunis, which produces Maltaise fruit of highest quality.

Maltaise Sanguine has two additional selections, which prolong the Maltaise season:


Maltaise Boukhobza (Bokobza, Maltaise précoce, Maltaise Sanguine Bokhodza) An early maturing, low acid variety which is reported to have more decay and ships less well.

Maltaise Tardive Barlerin (Ballarin, Maltaise tardive, Malti makher)  Resembles Maltaise Sanguine in all other respects but Tardive Barlerin is a late maturing selection.
 
 ENG  
FRA
Photos   (1-2) © Anne-Hélène Cain / INRA
(3) © C. Jacquemond / INRA
       


   
LAT Citrus × sinensis ’Rhode Red Valencia’   'Rhode Red' Valencia orange
'Rhode Red' Valencia orange
'Rhode Red' Valencia orange
   


Rhode Red Valencia was propagated at the UC-Riverside collection and was received as budwood from the Florida Budwood Registration Program, Winterhaven, FL, in 1988. Apparently this variety is a selection from a mutated branch of a normal Valencia.

Rhode Red has deep orange rind, flesh and juice. It matures at the same time as other Valencias. It gives good crops on citrange and rough lemon. Only real difference from other Valencias is the deep flesh color.

Season: March to July










  
ENG Rhode Red Valencia orange 
FRA Orange Rhode Red 
Photo     (1-2) © Jorma Koskinen
(3) © CCPP
               


 
 LAT Citrus × sinensis 'Ruby'
'Ruby' blood orange
'Ruby' blood orange
2009
'Ruby' light blood orange
'Ruby' blood orange
2010
  
 
     



Ruby

Fruit is medium-sized, globose to slightly oblong; seeds relatively few. Well-coloured, with reddish flush under favourable conditions. Rind medium-thick, finely pitted, and lightly pebbled. Flesh tender and juicy; flavour rich. Flesh colour orange, with red under favourable conditions. Mid season in maturity. Tree is moderately vigorous, compact, medium-large, and productive. In both Florida and California, Ruby is highly uncertain and variable with respect to development of blood colouration. In California's coastal region, it seldom develops red pigmentation. Ruby is at its best in hot interior districts, however
with marked variability. In such areas the quality is excellent and at least part of the crop colours beautifully.

The pictures are of the same tree at the UCR Lindcove Citrus Research Station in two consecutive years. The difference in the degree of pigmentation both on the skin and in the flesh is quite clear. The two pictures at the top were taken in the third week of February 2009 and the two bottom pictures were taken in January 2010. Already some weeks earlier the fruit had more colour in 2010. Both pictures were taken from the shady side of the tree at eye level.







 ENG  'Ruby' blood orange
FRA  Orange sanguine 'Ruby'
Photos   © 2009 Gene Lester
© 2010 Jorma Koskinen

       


 
 LAT Citrus × sinensis 'Vainiglia Sanguigno'
'Vainiglia Sanguigno' blood orange
'Vainiglia Sanguigno' blood orange
  
 
     
Vainiglia Sanguigno is an acidless sweet orange with a pink flesh pigmented by lycopene. The tree is small to medium-sized at maturity with a round form. The round fruit is medium in size, seedy, with a smooth orange rind of medium thickness. Because of its lack of acidity, the fruit can be eaten as early as late autumn or early winter. The fruit is very juicy.





 ENG  'Vainiglia Sanguigno' light blood orange
FRA  Orange demi-sanguine 'Vainiglia Sanguigno'
Photos   © CCPP
© Jorma Koskinen
       


 
 LAT Citrus × sinensis 'Washington Sanguine'
Washington Sanguine light blood orange


Washington Sanguine light blood orange


Washington Sanguine light blood orange


Washington Sanguine light blood orange
  
The synonyms of 'Washington Sanguine' include:

Bahia Sanguinea, De Malte, Doublefine Améliorée, Grosse Ronde, Grosse Sanguine,
Pedro Veyrat,
Sanguine Grosse Ronde and Washington Sangre.
 
     
Washington Sanguine, a variant of the Doblefina blood orange, was found at Sagunto, Valencia province, Spain. As with most blood oranges, pigmentation development is variable. The fruit usually have only slight traces of "blood" inside. One of the traits of Washington Sanguine is that it can sometimes develop darker shades on the skin in suitable conditions while the flesh inside remains "bloodless" or has only a few specks. In spite of the name it is not related to Washington Navel orange.

The fruit size is bigger than in its parent Doblefina and the trees are more productive. All other fruit qualities are slightly better and most importantly more consistent. Hence its French name
Doublefine Améliorée, which means Improved Doblefina.

A name sometimes heard in the US is Sanguine Grosse Ronde, which is a synonym of Washington Sanguine, as is also Pedro Veyrat.


Washington Sanguine is grown on a larger scale in Spain, Algeria and Morocco and it is a well-appreciated variety in Europe. In bad years consumers eat it as a regular orange without being aware of its bloody pedigree. In the hills around the Mediterranean basin it develops sufficient acidity, a trait that it lacks already on the Atlantic side of Morocco suggesting it prefers warmer interior districts. 

Due to its easy adaptability, lower demands on growing conditions and consistent qualities compared with other blood oranges Washington Sanguine is perhaps the most widely spread blood orange variety. It is grown under its various aliases, albeit on a very small scale, in most orange growing districts of the world. While it can become fully flushed with a purple shade on the skin don't expect it to develop any real pigmentation inside.

The pictures were taken at the UCR Lindcove station in early February.


 ENG 'Washington Sanguine' light blood orange
FRA Orange demi-sanguine 'Doublefine Améliorée'
Photos   © Jorma Koskinen
       






 
 
Blood oranges
Common blood oranges

In addition to the pinkish and bright red colours formed by lycopenes in light blood oranges the true
blood oranges
are often at least partially pigmented by the fully dark shades of anthocyanins.
A typical blood orange has multi-coloured flesh ranging from strongly pigmented areas to
spots without any 'blood'. The juice of a common blood orange is usually only medium
red due to the many light areas inside the fruit. The degree and darkness of
the colouration of course vary greatly from year to year
according to climatic and other growing conditions.

 
 LAT Citrus × sinensis  Sanguinello Group







'Sanguinello' blood orange
'Sanguinello' blood orange
Sanguinello

Citrus sinensis 'Sanguinello Moscato'
Sanguinello Moscato

Sanguinello Moscato di Cuscuna
Sanguinello Moscato di Cuscunà

Sanguinello a Pignu blood orange
Sanguinello a Pignu

    
Citrus × sinensis 'Sanguinello'
Citrus × sinensis 'Sanguinello Moscato' 
Citrus × sinensis 'Sanguinello Moscato di Cuscuna'
Citrus × sinensis 'Sanguinello a Pignu'

 

Sanguinello Group
Sanguinello is an old Italian blood orange variety of unknown origin. By a statute "Arancia rossa di Sicilia" (Sicilian blood orange) is a Protected Geographical Indication and the oranges can be grown in a strictly limited area on the eastern side of Sicily, south of Mount Etna. The only varieties allowed are Sanguinello, Tarocco and Moro with their most common derivatives.

Depending on growing conditions the Sanguinello varieties can sometimes have very little pigmentation on the skin while being reasonably well-coloured inside. All Sanguinellos are sweeter, less acidic and more consistent than Moro, but cannot reach the superior flavour of the mature Tarocco varieties.

Sanguinello (Sanguinello Comune) has long been one of the most important blood oranges of Sicily. Fruit are medium-sized, seeds few or none. Orange-coloured at maturity, washed with red. Rind medium-thick, moderately tough and adherent, and moderately to strongly pebbled. Flesh rather deeply red pigmented at maturity (more so and earlier than rind), juicy, pleasantly flavoured. Tree of medium vigour and size, productive.

Disambiguation: Sanguinello should not be confused with Sanguinelli, a Spanish deep blood orange that is of no relation.


Sanguinello Moscato is probably one of the most highly reputed blood oranges in Europe. It grows on the slopes of Mount Etna in Sicily where it is one of the principal varieties. Considered a superior cultivar it is known in the export trade as 'Paterno' orange, after a nearby town. The tree is vigorous, large, symmetrical in form; very productive with most of the crop borne inside, where it is protected against climatic vicissitudes and uniformity in pigmentation is favoured.

Sanguinello Moscato di Cuscunà
The rind of Sanguinello Moscato di Cuscunà is thinner and smoother than the skin of the other three Sanguinellos. Cuscunà is an earlier variety maturing in January whereas the others are later and mature in February-March.

Sanguinello a Pignu
The origin of Sanguinello a Pignu is uncertain. We know that it is a Sicilian variety, like so many other blood oranges. It bears few of the characteristics of other Sanguinello varieties so it may be related in name only. Sanguinello a Pignu seldom gets any real pigmentation either on the skin or in its flesh. In highly suitable conditions Sanguinello a Pignu develops red specks both on the rind and inside and in this respect it resembles the light blood oranges like Washington Sanguine (the Sanguine Grosse Ronde of many Internet articles). However, the taste remains that of a sweet orange and lacks the typical flavour of blood oranges.

 ENG Sanguinello, Sanguinello Moscato,
Sanguinello Moscato di Cuscunà and Sanguinello Pignu blood oranges.

FRA Oranges Sanguines Sanguinello,Sanguinello Moscato,
Sanguinello Moscato di Cuscunà et Sanguinello a Pignu.
Photos   (1-2,5) © Jorma Koskinen
(3) © UC Riverside
(4) © C. Jacquemond / INRA
        


 
 LAT Citrus × sinensis 'Delfino'
Delfino blood orange
Delfino blood orange
Delfino blood orange
  
 
      This information is from the UCR Riverside Citrus Variety Collection:


Delfino

Source: Received as budwood from Soledad, California, via the CCPP, 2002.
Parentage/origins: The donor states that this is possibly a seedling from prior to the 1930's.
Rootstocks of accession: Carrizo citrange, C-35 citrange
Season of ripeness at Riverside: December to January
Notes and observations:
According to the donor, the fruit matures in later summer in Soledad, is nearly spherical, the flesh is lightly colored with anthocyanins, and has some seeds.
Availability: Commercially available in California through the Citrus Clonal Protection Program.



 ENG  Delfino Blood orange
FRA
Photos   © Gene Lester
       


 
 LAT Citrus × sinensis  'Doblefina'
 
'Doblefina' blood orange
'Doblefina' blood orange
2009

'Doblefina' blood orange
'Doblefina' blood orange
2010

  
 
       

Doblefina
 (Doble Fina)
Of unknown Spanish origin, Doblefina was for many decades the principal blood orange variety in Spain and was favourably known in European markets.

Doblefina is highly variable and uncertain with respect to development and intensity of the blood colouration, which is often deficient or lacking. When well developed, however, the fruit is attractive.


Fruit medium-small to small, virtually seedless. Yellowish orange at maturity, more or less densely blushed with rose-coloured flecks. Rind medium-thick, firm and leathery, surface very smooth and fine-textured, tightly adherent and sometimes difficult to peel. Flesh firm and moderately juicy, with pink flecks scattered more or less throughout. As a blood orange its most important feature is the distinctive fragrance and mild, pleasant flavour. Fruit hangs poorly on tree and drops badly, but ships and stores unusually well. Late mid season in maturity. 

Three blood orange varieties: Entrefina, Doublefine Ameliorée (Washington Sanguine), and Spanish Sanguinelli have originated as budsports from Doblefina.


The pictures are of fruit from the same tree in the UCR Lindcove Citrus Research Station. The two top pictures are taken on the third week of February 2009. The two bottom pictures are from January 2010. They show how the pigmentation can change from one year to another.





 ENG  Doblefina blood orange
FRA
Photos   © 2009 Gene Lester
© 2010 Jorma Koskinen
       


 
 LAT Citrus × sinensis ' Entrefina'
'Entrefina' blood orange
  
 
     
Entrefina
Entrefina (Inglesa) is a spontaneus mutation of Doblefina from Castellón de la Plana, Spain. Fruit are small, globose to very slightly oval and virtually seedless. Color similar to Doblefina, but even less certain in development of blood coloration. Rind surface less smooth than Doblefina, but flesh somewhat juicier and fruit holds better on the tree. Late midseason in maturity. Tree said to be more vigorous, larger, and more productive than Doblefina and less subject to dropping of the fruit.


 ENG  
FRA
Photos   © IVIA OTRI
       


 


Deep blood oranges
Double blood oranges
 
 LAT Citrus × sinensis sp. 'Moro' blood orange


'Sanguinelli' blood orange


'Tarocco' blood orange

  
Citrus × sinensis 'Moro'
Citrus × sinensis 'Sanguinelli'
Citrus × sinensis 'Tarocco'
Citrus × sinensis 'Smith Red Valencia'
 
 
 
The three varieties most certain of blood colouration under a wide variety of conditions and most intense in pigmentation under favourable conditions are Moro,
(Spanish) Sanguinelli and Tarocco (see descriptions below). The deep colouration is due to the amounts of both lycopene and anthocyanin present in the ripe fruit. The deep blood oranges can have up to twice as much anthocyanin as the common blood varieties.

Tarocco, Sanguinelli and Moro display different combinations of skin and flesh pigmentation. Tarocco has all the variants: the skin can be without any "blood" while the flesh is strongly coloured and all combinations in between. Sanguinelli can develop the most intense skin colour of all blood oranges, but often it is not as dark inside as Moro or Tarroco is at their best. Moro, in its turn, can have the most intense deep dark, almost purple-black flesh and juice of all blood oranges while it may not have even the slightest speck of pigmentation on the skin. Some say the colour of fully ripe Moro juice resembles the colour of the best wines from Burgundy.
The skins of ripe full blood oranges can have as much anthocyanin as the skins of ripe dark grapes.

It is especially the flavour of the ripe fruit that is appreciated. Connoisseurs discern flavours and aromas of ripe cherry, passion fruit, raspberry and chocolate.

 ENG Tarocco, Spanish Sanguinelli and Moro deep blood oranges.
FRA Oranges sanguines Tarocco, Sanguinelli et Moro.
Photos   (1,3) © Joe Real
(2) © Jorma Koskinen
         


 
 LAT Citrus × sinensis  'Smith Red Valencia'
Smith Red Valencia orange
Smith Red Valencia orange
  
 
     
Smith Red Valencia was grown from a seed of a mutated branch on a Valencia tree of homeowner (Smith) of Moorpark, Ventura County, California. The tree is a vigorous grower and carries good crops of fruit. The fruit is of good size and flavor and is very low-seeded. The rind frequently carries a heavy red blush and the flesh is heavily pigmented with anthocyanin. The fruit shape is somewhat variable, globose to ovoid, with a depressed base. Although the fruit is mature in late winter, it holds well into late spring, well past the season for conventional blood oranges.


 ENG  Smith Red Valencia deep blod orange
FRA
Photos   © Gene Lester
       


 
 LAT Citrus × sinensis  'Moro'
'Moro' blood orange
'Moro' blood orange
'Moro' blood orange
'Moro' blood orange
'Moro' blood orange
  
Moro is also known as: Belladonna Sanguigno, Dam Al Zaghoul, Moro de Catania and Selezionato.

 
     

Moro

Moro is perhaps the best-known blood orange throughout the world. While Italians favour Tarocco the rest of Europe prefers Moro. The rind is medium-thick, moderately adherent, and somewhat pebbled. Orange-coloured at maturity with a light pink blush or red streaks at advanced maturity. Compared with the colouration of the fruit inside the skin develops very little colour, sometimes none at all. 

At its best the flesh of Moro is the most highly-coloured of the blood oranges owing to the high amount of anthocyanin pigment. The colour is of an exciting deep purple that is about to turn black. It is without the violet-to-blue shades of some other deep blood oranges. The colour of the juice of a highly-pigmented Moro has been compared to the colour of the best wines from Burgundy. The fruit is juicy and the flavour is pleasant.


However, Moro is the most highly variable of all the commonly grown blood oranges when it comes to the development of pigmentation both on the rind and in the flesh. While at its best the colour can be almost purple-black it can vary from medium 'bloody' to having scarcely any pigmentation at all. Also the size and the shape of the fruit vary so much from area to area, from country to country that it is almost impossible to determine a 'typical' Moro. Some Moro selections have a tendency to produce small fruit.

The second picture from the top shows fruit in various stages of pigmentation. The fruit were picked from the same tree on the same day. The most pigmented fruit were growing on the shady side of the tree on the lower limbs covered by the canopy of leaves. The least pigmented were growing on the sunny side of the tree and were fully exposed to sunlight. The picture was taken in the first week of February.

Moro is very early in maturity (earliest of the commercial blood oranges), but holds well on the tree and stores and ships well. A distinctive aroma develops with advanced maturity, but flavour deteriorates if held too long in storage and becomes objectionable to some.


 ENG  'Moro' deep blood orange
FRA
Photos   (1) © Gene Lester
(2-5) © Jorma Koskinen
       


 
 LAT Citrus × sinensis 'Sanguinelli'  (Spanish Sanguinelli)
'Sanguinelli' blood orange
'Sanguinelli' blood orange
'Sanguinelli' full blood orange
'Sanguinelli' blood orange
'Sanguinelli' blood orange
    
Sanguinelli is also known as:
Allota, Blutoval, Lsène asfour, Sanguinella, Sanguinella Negra and Spanish Sanguinelli.

 
     
Sanguinelli
Sanguinelli (Spanish Sanguinelli) is a late mid season blood orange variety from Spain, which originated as a limb sport of Doblefina discovered in 1929 at Almenara in the Castellón province of Spain. It came to the market around 1950.

Sanguinelli trees are of medium size, vigorous, thornless and productive.

The
fruit is similar to Doblefina, but larger and often asymmetrical; persistent in style. Blood colouration of both rind and flesh is much more intense and constant than in Doblefina. The rind is very smooth and shiny and the external red pigmentation is rarely equalled by other blood oranges, making the fruit most attractive.

The flesh is tender and juicy. The flavour is sweet and not as acidic as Doblefina. Internally the fruit is often not as pigmented as its skin colouration might lead to expect. Sometimes the strongest concentration of colour is next to the segment walls leaving much of the flesh less pigmented.

Sanguinelli holds on the tree longer than Doblefina and stores and ships fully as well or better.


Although 'Sanguinelli' is the correct cultivar name Spanish Sanguinelli is the preferred name to distinguish this variety from the Italian blood orange group Sanguinello. 


Disambiguation: Sanguinelli (Spanish Sanguinelli) is not to be confused with Sanguinello, an Italian blood orange with which it shares no ancestry.







 ENG  
FRA
Photos   (1-2) © Gene Lester
(3) © Joe Real
(4-5) © Jorma Koskinen
       


 
 LAT Citrus × sinensis  Tarocco Group





'Tarocco' blood orange
'Tarocco' blood orange
© Jorma Koskinen
  
Citrus
× sinensis 'Tarocco'
(Tarocco di Francofonte)
Citrus
× sinensis 'Tarocco del Muso'
Citrus × sinensis 'Tarocco Rosso' (Red Tarocco)
Citrus
× sinensis 'Bream Tarocco'
Citrus × sinensis 'Thermal Tarocco'
 
     
Tarocco
Tarocco came from Sanguino, one of the oldest and now rarest Italian light blood oranges, which should not be confused with the Italian Sanguinello variety. Tarocco is a medium-sized, vigorous, moderately productive tree. Many Tarocco trees are quite thorny. Recently some incompatibility issues have arisen with trifoliate rootstock.

Tarocco fruit have a typical, slightly ovate shape. The fruit are bottom heavy and the shape tapers towards the top, which can have a pointed collar. The rind is medium thick but easily peelable. The lightly pigmented flesh is soft and finely textured. The flavour is rich and fragrant and has a good balance of acidity and sugar. Tarocco is the preferred blood orange of Italians.
 
In Italy there are several local selections. Tarocco di Francofonte is the one known in the US as Tarocco. Tarocco del Muso has a pronounced neck and Tarocco Rosso (Red Tarocco) has a stronger red blush on the rind but is otherwise similar to Tarocco. The US selections of Tarocco, Bream Tarocco and Thermal Tarocco have more consistent pigmentation properties than the original and still prevailing Italian varieties, which has perhaps contributed to the high reputation of Tarocco in the United States.   

Tarocco is considered one of the best blood orange varieties and some say it is one of the most delicious sweet orange varieties in general. Top chefs especially in the US say Tarocco is the finest dessert orange. (See Sanguine Maltaise in Europe)
 
 

Bream Tarocco

Bream Tarocco, a US selection of Tarocco,
is a medium-large to large blood orange variety with few to no seeds and very good colouration properties. Bream Tarocco is one of the few varieties where the outer pigmentation matches the colour inside. However, the distinctive colour of course requires cold winter nights to develop properly but in a good year it can have one of the darkest pigmentations of all blood oranges. 

It is originally a bud mutation of a Tarocco tree from the garden of Robert Bream, Lindsay, California.

The pictures are of two trees growing side by side at the UCR Lindcove Citrus Station. The two top pictures were taken in February 2009. The bottom pictures were taken in January 2010. This shows how the degree of colouration can vary even if one takes the time difference of a couple of weeks into account.





















'Bream Tarocco' blood orange
'Bream Tarocco' blood orange
2009

'Bream Tarocco' blood orange
'Bream Tarocco' blood orange
2010

© 2009 Gene Lester
© 2010 Jorma Koskinen
 


Thermal Tarocco is a medium-large to large blood orange variety with few to no seeds. It is a variant of the Tarocco deep blood orange. It comes from Thermal, California. Tarocco blood oranges belong to the major and most highly valued blood orange varieties of the world. Of the three main US Tarocco varieties (Tarocco, Bream Tarocco) Thermal Tarocco has the least amount of pigmentation. In other respects it resembles 'Tarocco'.











'Thermal Tarocco' blood orange
'Thermal Tarocco' blood orange
© Jorma Koskinen
Photos  
       
 







Nutritional Value


Blood Orange Nutritional Information
Serving Size:1 medium orange (154g)

Amount Per Serving    % Daily Value*   % Daily Value*
Calories 80
Calories from Fat 0

Total Fat 0g
Cholesterol 0mg
Sodium 0mg
Potassium 260mg
Total Carbohydrate 21g
Dietary Fiber 7g
Sugars 14g
 Protein 1g
 Vitamin A 
Vitamin C 
Calcium
-
-
0%
0%
 0%
7%
7%
28%
-
-
2%
130%
 6%
Iron 
Thiamin 
Riboflavin 
Niacin 
Vitamin B6 
Folate 
Pantothenic Acid 
Phosphorus 
Iodine 
Magnesium 
Selenium 
Copper 
Manganese
2%
8%
4%
2%
4%
15%
4%
2%
2%
4%
2%
4%
2%
*Percent Daily Values are based on an average 2,000 calorie diet. Daily values may be higher or lower depending on calorie intake.
Source: PMA's Labeling Facts

 



 
References:

1. The Compositional Characterisation and Antioxidant Activity of Fresh Juices from Sicilian Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) Varieties

    ANNA R. PROTEGGENTE
ab, ANTONELLA SAIJA b, ANNA DE PASQUALE b and CATHERINE A. RICE-EVANS ab
    a
Antioxidant Research Group, Wolfson Centre for Age-Related Diseases, GKT School of Biomedical Sciences, King’s College London, London SE1 9RT,UK;
    b
Department Farmaco-Biologico, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Messina, Contrada Annunziata, 98168 Messina, Italy

2.  Sicilian red oranges as functional food
     by Anthony Almada 2005

3. Walter T. Swingle and Philip C. Reece
: The Botany of Citrus and Its Wild Relatives. Chapter 3 of The Citrus Industry Vol 1 pp 190 - 430. 


4. Robert Willard Hodgson: Horticultural Varieties of Citrus  Chapter 4 of The Citrus Industry

5. James Saunt: Citrus Varieties of the World,  Second edition, Sinclair UK © 2000

6. 
University of California, Riverside Citrus Variety Collection, Citrus varieties
    A presentation of the varieties at the UC Riverside Citrus Experiment Station.

7. University of California, Riverside CCPP Citrus Clonal Protection Program, Variety data
    A presentation of the holdings of the CCPP citrus variety collection with the relevant data.


8. 
Répartition des variétés par espèces. Station de recherche agronomique SRA-INRA Corse.
9. Détails des variétés par espèces. Station de recherche agronomique SRA-INRA Corse.

   These two large databases detail the holdings of the INRA Citrus Research Station in Corsica, France and list the variety synonym names.

10. 
R. Cottin: Citrus of the World, A citrus directory, SRA - INRA - CIRAD © 2002  
    A catalogue of more than 5500 citrus names, classified by botanical, common and cultivar names. Lists cultivar synonyms. Tanaka system.






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  Page updated 15 August 2016

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