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Citrus × limon and its relatives

Limoneira 8A lemon

 Botanical names

 Lemon Citrus × limon

 Lemon hybrids and relatives

Perrine lemonime
Volkamer lemon  Citrus volkameriana
Limetta  Citrus limetta, Mediterranean sweet lemon
Marrakech limetta
Pomona sweet lemon
Millsweet limetta
Pear lemon  Citrus lumia
Adam's apple Citrus lumia var. pomum adami
Galgal lemon Citrus pseudolimon
Ponderosa lemon Citrus pyriformis
Karna (Khatta) Citrus karna
Sanbokan sweet lemon Citrus sulcata
Rough lemon  Citrus × jambhiri
Vangasay  Citrus × jambhiri 'Vangasay'
Liudmila  Citrus × jambhiri  'Liudmila'
Lemandarin  Mandarin lemon
Meyer lemon  Citrus meyerii
Improved Meyer lemon
Snow lemon  Citrus kulu

Yuzu  Citrus × junos
Assam lemon  Citrus longilimon
'Limoneira 8 A' lemon
© Jorma Koskinen

'Eureka' lemon

Meyer lemon
The origin of the lemon is unknown. Some think it originated in north-western India, others think it came from India's north-eastern parts. It is reported to have grown in southern Italy in the third century A.D. and in Iraq and Egypt after 700 A.D. The first reliable information is from Sicily where it is known to have grown around 1000 A.D. The Arab conquerors took the lemon with them around the Mediterranean basin all the way to Southern Spain where we know it has been cultivated since 1150 A.D. We know that the Chinese were growing lemon in 1297 when Marco Polo arrived. Lemon was among the first new fruits to arrive to the New World on Christopher Columbus'  second voyage in 1493. He brought lemon seeds to the island of Hispaniola  (Haiti and Dominican Republic). The lemon slowly spread to other islands and the continent. Large-scale commercial cultivation of lemon began in Florida and California in the early days of the 19th century. In Europe the island of Sicily and other parts of southern Italy have exported lemons for several centuries. 

Lemons are not eaten fresh, but they can be found on every table around the Mediterranean irrespective of whether meat, fish or poultry will be served. The juice of lemon is squeezed to flavour all grilled or fried food. The acids in the juice have been found to slow the growth of unwanted microbes that easily develop in food left to stay warm too long.  In cooking it is the zest of the fruit that is wanted. The thinly peeled or grated rind of lemon has its own flavour that is highly prized in cooking and baking. The juice is used in lemonades and as a mixer in alcoholic beverages. The pulp left over after commercial juice extraction is an important source of citrus oil, pectin and citric acid.  These are used by the food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries.  'Yen Ben' Lisbon lemon
Volkamer lemon

'Seedless Lemon' CCPP  California

Variegated Pink-fleshed Eureka lemon

Volkamer lemon
Lemon is a very demanding plant to grow, totally intolerant of frost. The fruit and flowers are destroyed already at minus 1-2 C degrees. Nor does it do well in extreme heat. It thrives in areas which are too cool for oranges and grapefruit. The lemon belt is a narrow area on the cooler side of orange growing districts in both the northern and southern hemispheres. In best conditions the lemon tree produces flowers and fruit almost around the year. The immature fruit is green and during the cool nights of autumn and winter the colour slowly turns yellow. The harvests can be controlled by regulating the irrigation. The main harvesting period is winter and new flowering starts in spring. In dry areas the trees can be left to dry in the summer for 6 - 8 weeks until they look shrivelled and sickly. When they are then watered and fertilized heavily a new flowering appears in August - September. The fruit of this flowering will mature in the following summer when lemons are in short supply. The length of the harvest period can be prolonged in this way to increase productivity. In Italy some trees produce four crops a year (see Femminello). Lemons suffer less from diseases than other citrus types and the picked fruit are not easily damaged by transportation or storage. 

The biggest lemon producers are Italy, Spain, Greece, Turkey, Cyprus, Lebanon, South-Africa and Australia. In countries with warmer climates lemons can be grown at altitudes of 800 - 1200 meters, where nights are cool but without frost.
Botanical names of lemons
In accordance with the 1996 Tokyo code of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature where it says: "For any taxon from family to genus inclusive, the correct name is the earliest legitimate one" the botanical names on this Lemon page have been changed to Citrus × limon (L.) Osbeck for lemons and  those hybrids of lemons that have lemon, citron and sour orange in their backgrounds and to Citrus × jambhiri Lush.  for Rough lemon and other lemon hybrids that have mandarin in their backgrounds. The most common later classifications of both are given as synonyms. See: Citrus Classification

LAT Citrus × limon  (L.) Burm. f.  Meyer lemon
Meyer lemon

Yuzu, Citrus junos
Yuzu lemon

'Perrine' lemonine
Perrine lemonime

'Eureka' lemon
Eureka lemon

Variegated Pink-fleshed Eureka lemon
Variegated pink Eureka
Citrus limonum  Risso
Citrus limonia Osbeck
Citrus medica var. limonium Brandis

 = Citron Citrus medica × sour orange (Citrus × aurantium)

The lemon tree is vigorous, upright-spreading, and open in growth habit. It attains large size under favorable conditions if not controlled by pruning. Seedlings and most varieties are comparatively thorny, with relatively short and slender spines. The flowers, which occur in clusters produced throughout the year, are large and purple-tinged in the bud and on the lower surface of the petals. The new shoot growth is purple-tinted.

Although more resistant than the citron and limes to cold and heat, the lemon is much more sensitive than the other citrus fruits of major importance, and hence its commercial culture is restricted to subtropical regions of mild winter temperatures. Relatively equable growing-season temperatures are advantageous in that they seem to emphasize the ever-flowering tendency and are favorable for fruit-setting.

With minor exceptions, the principal commercial lemon-producing areas of the world are in coastal locations of southern California, Sicily, Greece, and Spain. By contrast, the picking season generally in interior districts is shorter and a much higher percentage of the crops come during the fall and winter, when prices are usually lower and longer storage is required for the summer markets. On the other hand, the fall and winter fruit ships and stores well and is higher in acid content.

Lemons are little grown in semitropical and tropical regions. In such regions, the sour lime is better adapted to both heat and humidity and is generally preferred. In addition, lemon size is undesirably large in relation to market demand, rind diseases are prevalent, and storage is difficult and expensive.

The fact that the lemon is grown primarily for the acid it contains, a constituent which is at its maximum prior to the attainment of horticultural maturity, affords possibilities in fruit-handling which have found numerous and important applications in practice. Indeed, development and utilization of such handling methods are largely responsible for the success of the California industry in supplying the needs of North America and invading the highly competitive markets of Europe.

Left alone lemons will grow to a much larger size than the lemons we find in supermarkets. Commercially grown lemons are picked when still green to obtain the small size required by the market. The lemons are then "cured" by storing them in a controlled temperature and humidity environment to mature them until the rind colour is yellow. Degreening is often needed.

Although a large number of lemon varieties is presented below lemons do not show the same degree of varietal diversity that can be found for example in oranges or mandarins. The characteristics of a variety do not differ from other lemon types in the same degree that is common in other citrus fruit. It is often very hard even for a seasoned citrus expert to be able to recognize a specific lemon variety.

ENG Lemon
FRA Citron
GER Zitrone
I TA Limone
ESP Limón, Limón real
Photos   © Jorma Koskinen

LAT Citrus × limon ’Allen’ 'Allen' variegated lemon
'Allen' variegated lemon
Syn Allen Variegated Eureka Lemon

The Allen Eureka lemon is an interesting form of variegated lemons because it lacks white shades altogether and there are several shades of green and yellow colour. The varieagation is strongest in the leaves. The immature fruit have the biggest amount of green variegation and the fruit tends to become more yellow with maturity. An attractive ornamental.

ENG Allen lemon
FRA Citron Allen panaché
Photos   © Gene Lester

LAT Citrus × limon 'Bearss'

'Bearss' lemon

'Bearss' lemon
Citrus × limon ’Sicilian’, 'Siciliano'

  The Bearss Lemon is a fast growing, very productive lemon tree. It has wonderfully fragrant blooms and bears an abundance of very juicy acidic fruit July through December. The trees are vigorous, thorny and very sensitive to cold. Bearss outproduces both Eureka and Lisbon. The flavor is outstanding. Bearss typically has up to six seeds per fruit.

This cultivar was selected in the Bearss grove near Lutz, Florida in 1952. The parent tree is said to have been planted in 1892. Libby Corporation produced many thousands of grafts from this tree in 1953 and planted several groves in Palm Beach County and surrounding areas until the 1960's. Bearss is now the leading variety in Florida.

The problem with lemon growing in Florida is that if left to grow to full size and maturity on the tree, the lemons will be too large for consumer preferences. Therefore lemons are picked when the size is suitable but the fruit is still immature. A process called 'curing' is applied whereby the lemons are kept in tightly controlled conditions with regulated temperature and humidity. The Bearss cultivar, also known as 'Sicilian', is the only variety currently recommended for the special climatic conditions. Most of the crop in Florida is used for rind oil and juice.

Bearss forms 20% of Brasilian lemon and lime production with the name Siciliano. In spite of its name this variety is neither known nor grown in Italy. A story tells us that the name was chosen because 'Bearss' resembled an earlier variety supposedly of Sicilian origin, which did not perform well in the hot climate. In Brazil lemon is limão-siciliano, Mexican (Key) lime is limão-galego, Tahiti (Persian) lime is limão-taiti and Rangpur lime is limão-cravo. Bearss (Siciliano) is grown in the hot and humid climate of Brazil for the same reasons it is the main variety in Florida. Whereas Mexican and Tahiti limes are better suited to the climate and therefore much more common in everyday use, the 'Siciliano' lemon is a specialty food item in Brazil, much appreciated for its fragrance. Most of the crop is eaten fresh, some of it is used for rind oil.

ENG Bearss lemon
FRA Citron Bearss
Photos     (1) © Mudas Paraiso
(2) © Melissa Ramos Bryar

LAT Citrus × limon ’Berna’ 'Berna' lemon

'Verna' lemon

'Verna' lemon
Citrus × limon 'Verna'
(Verna) is of unknown origin and is mostly grown in its native Spain where it is the second variety after Mesero (Primofiori) in the country's lemon production with a yearly production of 292 000 metric tons in 2006, about 33% of Spain's total lemon production.

Verna trees are big and thornless. They usually flower twice and, if given the Verdelli treatment, sometimes three times a year. The main crop 'Cosecha' from mid-February to late July gives medium to large fruit with a pronouced nipple and usually are well-developed neck. The pulp is tender and of good acidity with a few seeds. The fruit can hang on the trees without loss of quality for a long period.

The second crop 'Secundus' and the Verdelli crop (also sold as 'Rodrejos', from August to October) have rounder fruit that remain green when harvested and need degreening afterwards. Both are commercially less important but prolong the season and have the ability to produce fruit in summer when lemon supply is at its shortest in Europe.

Berna has a tendency for alternate bearing, especially with trees given the Verdelli treatment.

ENG Verna lemon, Berna lemon
FRA Citron Berna
Photo   (1) © C. Jacquemond / INRA
(1-2) © Jorma Koskinen

LAT Citrus × limon ‘Eureka’
'Eureka' lemon

'Eureka' lemon

'Eureka' lemon

'Frost Thornless' Eureka lemon
Frost Thornless Eureka

was born in California from seeds sent from Sicily in the late 1850s. The oblong shaped fruit are born throughout the season. The main harvest matures in late winter, early spring. The flowers are tinged with pink.

Outside the Mediterranean area Eureka is the most widely grown lemon tree being of major importance in California, Australia, Argentina, South Africa and also in Israel.

Of a spreading habit the tree is moderately vigorous and much smaller than its best-known rival 'Lisbon'. The tree is also more sparsely foliaged and the fruit more prone to wind blemish, sunburn and frost damage than fruit on other varieties where they are better protected inside the leaf canopy.

Less cold-resistant than other varieties Eureka is well-suited to coastal areas where frost damage seldom occurs.

The fruit have a smooth medium thin rind, high juice content, high acid level, low number of seeds and good flavour. The trees are less thorny than many other lemon varieties, which makes picking easier. In its early years Eureka is more productive than Lisbon and the harvest season remains longer also when fully grown, starting in late winter and continuing through spring till early summer.

The third picture is of Frost Thornless Eureka of which the UC-Riverside CVC website says: 
"Crop well distributed throughout year, but mainly in late winter, spring, and early summer."

The bottom picture is of the Allen strain, which has been one of the most popular in the past two decades.

Other important Eureka selections include: Allen-Newman, Cascade, Corona Foothill, Frost, Ross and Taylor.

ENG Eureka lemon
FRA Citron Eureka
Photo   (1-3) © Jorma Koskinen
(4) © Joe Real

LAT Citrus × limon var. variegata  Pink-fleshed lemon Variegated Pink-fleshed Eureka lemon
Variegated Pink-fleshed Eureka lemon
Pink-fleshed lemon (Variegated Eureka)
Citrus × limon ’Eureka’ var. variegata


The Pink-fleshed Eureka lemon
is a variegated form of Eureka that appeared in a private garden in Burbank, California in 1931. The flesh and juice of a mature fruit are pink. The juice is used in mixed drinks. The leaves and peel of the fruit are bi-coloured. The variegated lemon is an attractive ornamental plant with the bonus of edible fruit.

The lower picture is from the citrus plantation of Gene Lester in Central California and he told that the fruit of the variegated Eureka is one of those variegations that loses the colour with maturation. He also said that the amount of variegation in the leaves is higher than in any other variegated citrus he has.

ENG Pink-fleshed lemon, Variegated lemon
FRA Citron panaché
Photos     (1-2) © Jorma Koskinen
(3) © Gene Lester

LAT Citrus × limon ’Femminello’ 'Femminello' lemon

'Femminello' lemon

'Femminello' lemon

'Femminello' lemon

'Femminello Siracusano' lemon

'Femminello' lemon

Femminello lemons in Positano
Syn  Also known as 'Ovale', 'Comune' or 'Ruvittaru'

forms a group of several lemon selections each with its own characteristics (see at the bottom). All Femminello lemons are vigorous, productive, ever-blooming and ever-bearing. Femminello is the most important lemon variety of Italy.
Collectively they form about 75% of Italian lemon production.

Femminello is a medium sized tree with few or no thorns. In suitable conditions it flowers almost around the year. In Italy Femminello trees are regulated by irrigation and fertilization to produce six crops per year. The harvests and their fruit have different names:

Marzani blossom in February-March and mature the following January-March
Limoni invernali blossom in March-April and mature November-March
Bianchetti blossom in June-July and mature following April-June
Verdelli blossom in July and mature following July-September
Primofiore blossom first in March and mature in September-November
Bastardi blossom in autumn and mature in the autumn of the following year.

Type Bloom
Maturity seasons (M)
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Marzani 2-3 M
Invernali 3-4 M

Bianchetti 6-7       M

Verdelli 7             M
Primofiore 3    
Bastardi 10-11                 M

The fruit rarest in their season command the highest prices on the market. The light green summer Verdellis are at a premium price followed by the much sought-after Primofiore, the first fruit of the spring bloom of the same year.

As the names Bianchetti and Verdelli imply the spring and summer crops do not have the strong yellow colour of winter fruit as the nights are less cold and the fruit usually need degreening. The Femminello fruit are oblong in form with a pointed tip and 2 - 12 seeds. The flesh is greenish, very juicy and acid. The Verdelli fruit have less juice, because the juice is not yet free-flowing and it is more difficult to extract.

In addition to the main variety called Comune, Ovale or Ruvittaru there are several other strains:

Zagara Bianca (Fior d'arancio) mal secco resistant, very productive
Femminello Siracusano (Femminello masculuni) ever-flowering, vigorous
Apireno Continella, seedless, ever-bearing
Femminello Dosaco, high production of much sought-after Verdellis.
Femminello Scandurra, ever-bearing, medium productive, matures in October
Femminello Lunario, mal secco resistant, ever-bearing, popular in dooryards.
Femminello Sfusato (Sfusato Amalfitano) fragrant, famous Limoncello liqueur.

 ENG Femminello lemon
FRA Citron Femminello
Photos   © UCR Citrus Variety Collection
(5) © IL Gardino di Tino
© C. Jacquemond / INRA
(8) © Marina Strukel

LAT Citrus × limon ’Genova’ 'Genoa' lemon
'Genoa' lemon
Syn Citrus × limon 'Genoa' 
The following description is by James Saunt from his book Citrus Varieties of the World, 2nd edition, 2000, p. 113.

"Like the Villafranca, this variety is also of Italian origin, being exported first to California, then to Florida about 1881. The tree is thornless and of smaller habit than Eureka, but is more cold-resistant and has denser foliage.

The fruit is just as smooth but is more spherical with a small pointed neck and nipple. Internally the fruit has similar quality to Eureka: juicy, acidic, thin rind and variable seed content ranging from seedless to six seeds per fruit. In California, Genoa is considered to be a strain of Eureka.

It is grown principally in South America: in Chile, for example, it is the leading variety. In Argentina the nucellar selection EETA is more productive that the old line Genova, especially in the season."

ENG Genoa lemon, Genova lemon
FRA Citron Gênes, Citron Genova
Photos   © CCPP

LAT Citrus × limon ’Interdonato’ 'Interdonato' lemon

'Interdonato' lemon
Interdonato is a natural hybrid of lemon and citron. It was discovered on the property of a Colonel Interdonato, Sicily, around 1875. The fruit is large, oblong, cylindrical, with conical, pointed nipple at apex and a short neck or collar at base. The peel is yellow, smooth, glossy, thin and tightly clinging. The pulp is greenish-yellow, in 8 or 9 segments, crisp, juicy, very acid and faintly bitter. Very few seeds. Earliest in season. Its fruits ripen between September and October between Verdello and Primo Fiore lemon. Tree is vigorous, usually thornless, medium-resistant to mal secco; of medium yield; accounts for less than 5% of Italy's crop.

The top picture shows a young plant that has not fruited yet. The detail shows new growth with the purplish colour typical of many acid citrus fruit. The bottom picture is of Turkish Interdonato lemons.

ENG Interdonato lemon
FRA Citron Interdonato
Photo   (1) © Gene Lester
(2) © Jorma Koskinen

LAT Citrus × limon ’Limoneira 8 A’ 'Limoneira 8A' Lisbon lemon
'Limoneira 8A' Lisbon lemon
'Limoneira 8A' Lisbon lemon

Limoneira 8 A is one of the newest Lisbon selections. It is nowadays probably the most popular Lisbon type in Calilfornia, Arizona and Argentina. Vigour, size and seediness are similar to Eureka but Limoneira 8 A has longer blossoming periods and consequently longer periods of harvesting. In certain areas of Arizona it can be picked twice a month from April to October and once a month from from November to March. Limoneira 8A has a high yield of fragrant rind oil.

The name of the variety comes from The Limoneira Companys orchard 8-A in Olivelands where this variety was developed in the 1940's. The new variety proved more resistant to disease and yielded more high quality fruit that maintained a strong shelf life. It was submitted as budwood to the UC-Riverside Citrus Station in 1966.


ENG Limoneira 8 A lemon
FRA Citron Limoneira 8 A
Photo   (1-2) © Jorma Koskinen
(3) © Joe Real

LAT Citrus × limon ’Lisbon’ 'Frost Lisbon' lemon
Frost Lisbon

'Limoneira 8A' Lisbon lemon
Prior Lisbon

'Walker' Lisbon lemon
Walker Lisbon
The origin of the Lisbon lemon is much debated. Although mentioned in some nursery catalogues around 1850 the origin of those types remains unknown. The current main selections of Lisbon originate from two importations around 1875 from Australia where it was planted from seeds sent from Portugal in the early 1820s. Although of Portuguese origin Lisbon is not known there by that name. The new variety soon became very popular. Outside the Mediterranean basin Lisbon is the number two lemon variety after Eureka. Lisbon is of high importance in California, Arizona, Australia, Uruguay and Argentina.

In comparison with Eureka, Lisbon is more cold-resistant, more productive and vigorous. It has a denser foliage and the fruit inside the canopy are better protected from sun, wind and cold. The trees are also much thornier.

Compared with the trees the fruit have fewer differences. Lisbon has a less pronounced nipple and slightly rougher rind texture. Juiciness and acidity are about the same.

In suitable conditions Lisbon outyields Eureka by 20-25 per cent due to the bigger size of both tree and fruit, but has to be more widely spaced because of the same reasons.

Several further Lisbon selections have been made. The oldest still known clonal nucellar budline is 'Frost' from 1917, released in 1950. (Top picture).  Other common Lisbon types include Monroe, Prior, Rosenberg, Dr. Strong and Walker.

Two importan recent Lisbon selections are Limoneira 8 A and Yen Ben.

For Galligan Lisbon see Villafranca.

ENG Lisbon lemon, Portuguese lemon
FRA Citron Lisbon
Photo   (1-2) © CCPP
(3) © Joe Real

LAT Citrus × limon ’Monachello’ 'Monachello' lemon

'Monachello' lemon
Monachello is an Italian lemon variety grown especially in the province of Messina at the southern tip of Italy. Monachello forms about 10-12 per cent of Italian lemon production. Monachello does not rebloom the same way Femminello varieties do and it does not respond as well to the Verdelli treatment called forzatura in Italian. Monachello is also less vigorous and it takes longer to reach maximum productivity.

However, the great feature of Monachello is its good resistance to mal secco, so prevalent in Italian lemon groves. The fruit are of medium size and reach maturity from early December.

ENG Monachello lemon
FRA Citron Monachello
Photo   © C. Jacquemond / INRA

LAT Citrus × limon ’Primofiori’ 'Primofiori' lemon

'Fino' lemon
   Syn Citrus × limon 'Fino'
Citrus × limon 'Mesero'
Citrus × limon 'Blanco'
In Spain the Fino variety is often locally referred to as Mesero, but it is exported as Primofiori. It is important not to confuse the Spanish Primofiori variety with the Italian name Primofiore, which refers to fruit of the first spring flowering of the Italian Femminello variety.

Primofiori (Fino, Mesero) is currently the most important lemon variety in the Mediterranean basin. It is the number one lemon in Spain where the production in 2006 was 576 000 metric tons accounting for 65% of the annual Spanish lemon crop.

Primofiori trees are vigorous, thorny and highly productive each season. Fruit are regularly-shaped, spherical to oval with a relatively small nipple compared to Berna. The fruit is smaller but yields more juice than Berna. Primoriori has more seeds than Berna. Unlike Berna, Primofiori produces no secondary crop and the harvest extends from October to February, thus complementing the Berna harvest that extends from February to October. Primofiori is picked two to three times leaving the smaller fruit to grow in size irrespective of colour.

ENG Primofiori lemon, Fino lemon, Mesero lemon, Blanco lemon
FRA Citron Fino
Photos   (1) © Jorma Koskinen
(2) © CCPP

LAT Citrus × limon ’Santa Teresa’ 'Santa Teresa' lemon

'Santa Teresa' lemon
Syn Citrus × limon 'Femminello Santa Teresa'
Citrus × limon 'Italian'
Santa Teresa
is originally a Femminello selection. Femminello selections are essentially Italian varieties but Santa Teresa is also grown in north western Argentina where its rind is appreciated for its high yiel of fragrant lemon oil. It is also grown in Turkey under the name 'Italian'.

Almost all Femminello selections are very susceptible to the mal secco disease prevalent in most Italian orchards, but one of the reasons of the increasing popularity of Santa Teresa is its higher tolerance of mal secco.

The Turkish 'Italian' is grown in the Mersin district. The fruit has a roundish shape, moderately thick rind and it is very seedy. Unlike many fragile lemon varieties it has a firm structure and tolerates storing and transportation better.
It is productive and the juice has a high acid content.

ENG Santa Teresa lemon
FRA Citron Santa Teresa
Photo   © C. Jacquemond / INRA

LAT Citrus × limon ’Seedless’ 'Seedless Lemon' CCPP  California
'Seedless Lemon' CCPP  California
Seedless Lemon CCPP, CA

Australian Seedless Eureka lemon
Australian Seedless Eureka

'Eureka Seedless' CitroGold, South Africa
Eureka Seedless, South Africa


Seedless lemon
. Several seedless lemon varieties are marketed today. The three main varieties are the Californian Seedless lemon, the Australian Seedless Eureka lemon and the South African Eureka Seedless lemon.

Seedless lemon
(CCPP, California)
This lemon was formerly known as Seedless Lisbon. The variety was received in 1939 from Lassocock's Nursery in South Australia. DNA fingerprint data indicates that this lemon may not a Lisbon even though it was imported as such, so it is listed by the CCPP as Seedless Lemon. The fruit are consistently very low seeded to seedless in a mixed variety block planting.

Seedless Eureka
, Australia
This recently released variety, Australia’s  first seedless lemon is a Queensland grown product of more than 10 years of breeding and selection by Emerald farmers Craig and Bindi Pressler. The fruit is thought to be of special interest to the restaurant and bar trade because of its lack of pips.

Eureka Seedless
, CitroGold, South Africa
The 'Eureka Seedless' lemon tree originated as a limb sport mutation of a Eureka lemon tree, discovered in 1996 in Hoedspruit, Mpumalanga, South Africa. The new variety was notable for its production of seedless fruit, and was selected for propagation and observation. `Eureka Seedless` was first asexually propagated in 2000 at the Institute for Tropical and Subtropical Crops at Neslpruit, South Africa, using tip grafting methods. The new variety has been observed to retain its distinctive characteristics over successive asexually propagated generations.

CitroGold Eureka Seedless information sheet .pdf

ENG Seedless lemon
Photos   (1) © Jorma Koskinen
(2)  © Joe Real
(4) CitroGold

LAT Citrus × limon ’Villafranca’ 'Villafranca' lemon
'Villafranca' lemon
'Villafranca' lemon
Citrus × limon 'Corona Foothill Eureka'
Citrus × limon 'Galligan Lisbon'


Villafranca is believed to have originated in Sicily; introduced into Sanford, Florida, from Europe around 1875 and later into California. The fruit closely resembles 'Eureka' and is almost indistinguishable, but the seasonal distrubution is more like Lisbon, mainly in winter.

Tree is more vigorous, larger, more densely foliaged, and more thorny than Eureka but becomes thornless with age.

This was the leading lemon cultivar in Florida for many years but it has recently been superseded by ‘Bearss’ (Sicilian). Villafranca is cultivated commercially in Israel and northwestern Argentina.

It is little grown in California but has given rise to certain selections that are of importance, particularly 'Galligan Lisbon' and 'Corona Foothill Eureka', which in reality originally were Villafranca selections. It is  difficult to distinguish the mature tree and its fruit from Eureka.

ENG Villafranca lemon
FRA Citron Villafranca
Photo   (1,3) © CCPP
(2) © C. Jacquemond / INRA

LAT Citrus × limon 'Yen Ben' 'Yen Ben' Lisbon lemon
'Yen Ben' Lisbon lemon
'Yen Ben' Lisbon lemon
'Yen Ben' Lisbon lemon
Information from a Citrus Australia fact sheet:

Yen Ben lemon was selected as a sport of Lisbon lemon at ‘Benyenda’ near Burrum Heads, Queensland in the late 1930s. Yen Ben has been trialed in New Zealand since 1978 where it has become a popular lemon variety due to its good fruit quality characteristics.

Yen Ben is similar to Lisbon lemon. On the Central coast of NSW multiple crops are produced throughout the year with the majority of fruit harvested in winter.

Yen Ben lemon has high juice content that is maintained during long-term storage. Rind is thinner than both Eureka and Lisbon lemons. Low seed numbers, usually averaging around two seeds per fruit.

Yen Ben lemon produces smaller sized fruit than Eureka lemon. Fruit from the main winter crop has an average weight of around 120-130g per fruit. Yen Ben lemon produces fruit with smooth textured, thin rind. Yen Ben fruit grown in New Zealand are recognised as having a high quality external appearance superior to other lemon cultivars.

Photo   © Jorma Koskinen

Lemon hybrids and relatives
There are many kinds of lemon hybrids. The nature of many hybrids are known. The most common ones are lemon-mandarin, lemon-orange and lemon-citron crosses. There are lemon-like fruit below that are complicated hybrids but are used in cooking in the same way as lemons. The exact nature or provenance of some lemon-like fruit below remains unknown.

In accordance with the 1996 Tokyo code of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature where it says: "For any taxon from family to genus inclusive, the correct name is the earliest legitimate one" the botanical names on this Lemon page have been changed to Citrus × limon (L.) Osbeck for lemons and  those hybrids of lemons that have lemon, citron or sour orange in their backgrounds and to Citrus × jambhiri Lush. for Rough lemon and other lemon hybrids that have mandarin in their backgrounds. The most common later classifications of both are given as synonyms.
For more on botanical names see:  Citrus classification

LAT Citrus × limon ’Lemonime’  'Lemonime'
Chinese lemon

'Perrine' lemonine
'Perrine' lemonine
(Citrus × limon) × (Citrus × aurantiifolia )


is a cross of lemon and lime.  The most important variety is the Perrine of Florida. Perrine hybrid was made by W.T. Swingle and his associates in the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture in 1909 and was named and released in 1931. It has never achieved commercial importance.  It was first thought to be very cold resistant but even in Southern Florida a hard freeze destroyed the plantings and Perrine was later replaced by new Persian lime plantings.

The fruit is larger than a regular lime. Its characteristics point more towards the lime parent than the Genoa lemon. The plant is reported to be resistant to both lime withertip and citrus scab.

Other varieties include: 'Fourny' (Corsica), 'Oscar' (Italy), 'La Valette' (Malta), 'Mohtasseb' (Morocco), 'Khangi' (Nepal) and 'AK' (Turkey).

ENG Lemonime, Lemon lime, Chinese lemon
FRA Lemonime, Lemon lime, Chinese lemon
I TA Limonima, limonetta
Photo   (1) © C. Jacquemond / INRA
(2-3) © Jorma Koskinen

LAT Citrus × limon  'Volkamer' 
Volkamer lemon
Volkamer lemon
Volkamer lemon
Citrus volkameriana  V.Ten. & Pasq.
Citrus limonia Osbeck ' Volkameriana'
Citrus x limonia

The Volkamer lemon has been known for three centuries. It was first thought of
as variant of mandarin lime. More recently it has been identified as a a cross of lemon and sour orange. Slightly smaller than lemon trees, it flowers and bears fruit profusely. This and the attractively dense foliage make it an excellent ornamental tree.  

The fruit are lemon-shaped, wide and with a rough, bright reddish rind. The flesh and juice are yellow-reddish colour. The fruit has few or no seeds, tastes slightly bitter and has a  pleasantly fresh taste and aroma. It can be used in cooking instead of lemon.

The Volkamer lemon is used as rootstock for other citrus types because of its resistance to many diseases.

ENG Volkamer lemon
FRA Citron de Volkamer
Photo   © Jorma Koskinen

 LAT Citrus × limon 'Limetta'  Mediterranean sweet lemon
(Sweet) Limetta, Citrus limetta

Marrakech limonetta
Marrakech limonetta
Marrakech limetta

Pomona acidless lemon
Pomona sweet lemon
Syn Citrus limetta  Risso
Mediterranean Sweet lemon (Limetta, Limette de Tunisie) is the sweet lemon of the Mediterranean basin. The French name Mamelon means nipple and refers to the shape of the fruit. The Mediterranean sweet limetta is an old and reasonably well-known fruit in the Mediterranean and has considerable importance in Tunisia and some localities in Italy.  

Limetta has three well-known, closely related varieties: The Marrakech limetta (Moroccan limonetta, Limoun Boussera), the Millsweet limetta below and Pomona sweet lemon (bottom picture). Marrakech limetta is medium-sized, apex strongly flattened with broad and deep areolar furrow surrounding a prominent nipple. Rind thin, moderately pitted with sunken oil glands and somewhat bumpy; color light yellowish-orange. Segments about 11. Flesh color pale yellow, juicy, very sour and aromatic.

Pomona is a variety on unknown origin. The budwood for the variety that is available was collected  from a very old tree in North Pomona, CA. The fruit is usually seedless, very sweet and has almost no acidity. The flavour is pleasant and the rind flavour is distinct and sharp. The tree is said to be exceptionally hardy.

In view of the few and minor differences between Limetta and Millsweet limetta, the confusion in the literature and otherwise is readily understandable but nevertheless unfortunate. The fruit is almost indistinguishable from Millsweet limetta except that Mediterranean Limetta is acidless, hence even more insipidly sweet; chalazal spot is cream-colored instead of purple.

In addition, this fruit has often been confused with the Indian or Palestine sweet lime (Citrus limettioides), which it resembles only slightly.

Other cultivated varieties: Boufarik (Algeria), Sarbati (India), Shah (Iran), Marrakech (Morocco), Nicaragua (Nicaragua), Lydenbourg (South Africa) and Tunisie (Tunisia)

Limetta is sometimes also called Italian lime or Mediterranean sweet lime. 

 ENG Limetta, Sweet limetta, Mediterranean sweet lemon
Sweet lemon, Sweet lime, Italian lime
 FRA Limette à mamelon, Limette d’Italie, Limon doux, Limetta de Tunisie
 GER Echte Limette, Süsse Limette, Süsse Zitrone
 I TA Limetta
 ESP Limón dulce
 Photo     (1) © Home Citrus Growers
© Jorma Koskinen
(4) © CCPP

LAT Citrus × limon 'Millsweet'  Millsweet limetta
'Millsweet' limetta
'Millsweet' limetta
Syn Citrus limetta  Risso 'Millsweet'
  The Millsweet limetta comes originally from the Mediterranean region. It came through Mexico to the US where it was named Millsweet in 1943. The fruit is low in acidity giving the juice a sweet taste. The Millsweet flowers and produces fruit throughout the year but the main flowering season is in the spring. Often classified as a lime.
ENG Millsweet limetta
FRA Limette millsweet
I TA Limetta millsweet
ESP Limón dulce millsweet
© UCR Citrus Variety Collection

LAT Citrus × limon  'Lumia'  
Pear lemon, Citrus lumia
Pear lemon, Citrus lumia
Citrus lumia
 Risso & Poit.
Citrus limon var. lumia  Swingle
Citrus medica L. var. lumia

The Pear lemon (Citrus × limon 'Lumia') is often confused with
the 'Palestine Sweet Lime'  Citrus × jambhiri  Lush. 'Palestine' or other sweet limes. Also called French lime and (erroneously) Sweet lemon it is a tree found in Mediterranean countries. The fruit resembles a pear in shape,  has a thick peel and is not very juicy. It can grow to a formidable size; the fruit in the picture is 18 cm (7 in) long as the ruler shows.

A group of scientists working in the University of Catania, Italy has shown by studying its chromosomes that the Pear lemon (and its cousin Adam's apple below) was first a hybrid of pomelo and citron, which then hybridized with lemon.  Pear lemon is sometimes classified as a citron hybrid.

Cultivated varieties: Bornéo (Indonesia), Balaingue, Bitrouni and Otrodj (Iran)

ENG Pear lemon, French lime, Sweet lemon
FRA Lumie, Poire du commandeur
GER Birnenlimone, Süsse Limone, Komturbirne
I TA Lumia, Pero del Commendatore
Photo   © Home Citrus Growers

LAT Citrus × limon 'Pomum Adami'  Adam's apple
Adam's apple, Citrus aurata
Adam's apple, Citrus aurata
Adam's apple, Citrus aurata
Citrus lumia
Risso & Poit var. pomum adami
Citrus aurata  Risso
Citrus lumia 'Pomum d'Adamum'
Citrus medica L. var. pomum adami

Marco Polo first saw the Adam's apple in Persia (present-day Iran). The Arabs presumably brought it with them to the Near East. The French crusaders discovered it in Palestine on the seventh crusade in 1250 and named it Adam's apple. It is also know as Adam and as Apple of Paradise. A group of scientists working in the University of Catania, Italy has shown by studying its chromosomes that the Adam's apple (and its cousin Pear lemon above) was first a hybrid of pomelo and citron, which then hybridized with lemon.  Adam's apple is sometimes classified as a citron hybrid.

ENG Adam's apple 
FRA Pomme d'Adam, Pomme du paradis.
GER Adamsapfel
I TA Pomo d'Adamo
Photo   (1) © Home Citrus Growers
(2-3) Petr Broža

LAT Citrus × limon 'Galgal'  Galgal lemon 
'Galgal' lemon, Citrus pseudolimon

'Galgal' lemon, Citrus pseudolimon

'Galgal' lemon, Citrus pseudolimon
Citrus pseudolimon

Galgal (Gulgul) is an important local item of trade in the Himachal Pradesh, Jammu Kashmir and Punjab states of India. In the western Sub-Himalayas, where it apparently occurs in a wild state, it is widely cultivated as a door yard tree in the vicinity of Solan, northern Himachal province. 

Fruit medium-large to large, oblong to ellipsoid, usually with short blunt-pointed nipple, sometimes depressed and flat. Rind medium-thick; surface usually smooth, tightly adherent; color pale to golden yellow. Segments about 10, flesh color pale yellow; coarse in texture, moderately juicy; flavor very sour and with trace of bitterness. Seeds numerous and large.
Tree vigorous, upright or spreading but irregular and open, with stout branches, numerous thick spines; leaves large and dull-green. Flowers large, purple-tinged, and produced in spring only. New shoot growth purple-tinted.

This Indian citrus fruit of ancient and unknown origin is also known as the hill lemon or Kumaon lemon. While resemblances to the lemon are obvious, there are notable differences, among which are the essential oils and hence the aroma of both leaves and rind with a hint of Papeda flavour, and the single bloom, one-crop behavior. Moreover, the tree is more resistant to both cold and heat.

An Indian cultivated variety: Kumaon

Galgal lemon is also called Hill lemon, Gulgul lemon and Kumaon lemon.

The Galgal lemon is Gulgul in Hindi, Hiru remon in Japanese and Jia er jia er ning meng in Chinese.
ENG Galgal lemon, Hill lemon, Kumaon lemon
Photos   © Gene Lester

LAT Citrus × limon 'Ponderosa'  Ponderosa lemon
Ponderosa lemon, Citrus pyriformis

Ponderosa lemon, Citrus pyriformis

Ponderosa lemon, Citrus pyriformis
Citrus pyriformis
Citrus limon  Burm.f.  var. pyriformis
Citrus limon ‘American Wonder’
Citrus limon × Citrus medica

The Ponderosa lemon is another pear-shaped lemon. Its leaves and the thick peel tell us that it is a lemon-citron hybrid. The Ponderosa lemon is often classified as a citron hybrid.

The large leaves, thick foliage, large showy fruit, low growing habit and good tolerance of pruning and cutting all make it a popular ornamental tree in California and Florida. Also known as 'American Wonder'.

ENG Ponderosa lemon
FRA Citron Ponderosa
Photos   (1) © Aggie Horticulture TAMU
(2-3) © Jorma Koskinen

LAT Citrus × aurantium L.  'Karna'
Khatta, Citrus karna
Syn Citrus karna Raf.
Citrus × jambhiri 'Karna'
Citrus aurantium L. var. khatta Bonavia 
Citrus dimorphocarpa Lush.
(Khatta) is an old fruit from Maharashtra State, India. It is of unkknown origin but is suspected to be a cross or sour orange and lemon.

It is discussed in Sour orange hybrids as Citrus × aurantium 'Karna'

ENG Karna, Khatta, Indian lemon
FRA Lime Khatta de l'Inde
Photo     © C. Jacquemond / INRA

LAT Citrus × aurantium 'Sanbokan'
Sanbokan, Citrus sulcata
Sanbokan, Citrus sulcata
Citrus sulcata  Takahashi
Citrus × aurantium L. subf. sulcata ( Ik.Takah. ) M.Hiroe

Sanbokan (Sanbô) is an old Japanese fruit of unknown origin. Due to its popularity and the shape and taste of the fruit is has many names: Sanbokan Sweet Lemon, Sanbokan lemon, Sanbokan grapefruit. It was early classified as a sour orange hybrid and indeed, molecular analysis has shown it to be a close relative of Nansho-daidai (Citrus taiwanica).

It is discussed in sour orange hybrids as Citrus × aurantium 'Sanbokan'

ENG Sanbokan Sweet Lemon, Sanbokan sour orange, Sanbokan grapefruit 
Photo     © Laaz

 LAT Citrus × jambhiri  Lush.  Rough lemon Rough lemon, Citrus jambhiri

Rough lemon, Citrus jambhiri

Rough lemon
Cultivated varieties:
’Estes’, ’Milam’, 'McKillop' and 'Lockyer'

A recent study using molecular markers has shown Rough lemon to be a cross of mandarin and citron. It is believed to have originated in northern India, where it grows wild; carried in 1498 or later by Portuguese explorers to southeastern Africa where it became naturalized; soon taken to Europe, and brought by Spaniards to the New World. It is naturalized in the West Indies and Florida.

Fruit oblate, rounded or oval, base flat to distinctly necked, apex rounded with a more or less sunken nipple; of medium size, averaging 2 3/4 in,(7 cm) wide, 2 1/2 (6.25 cm) high; peel lemon-yellow to orange-yellow, rough and irregular, with large oil glands.

Tree is large, very thorny; new growth slightly tinged with red; buds and flowers with red-purple. The scant pulp and juice limit the rough lemon to home use. It is appreciated as a dooryard fruit tree in Hawaii and in other tropical and subtropical areas where better lemons are not available.

Reproduces true from seeds.

See: Trifoliate orange & rootstock Rough lemon

 ENG Rough lemon, Florida Rough, Jamberi, Citronelle
 FRA Citron verruqueux, Rough lemon
 GER Rauhschalige Zitrone
 I TA Rugoso
 SPA Limón rugoso
Photo   (1) © CINHP / G.McCormack, with permission
(2) © C. Jacquemond / INRA
(3) CCPP


LAT Citrus × jambhiri Lush. ’Vangassay’  Vangasay lemon Vangassay, Citrus jambhiri
Vangassay, Citrus jambhiri
Vangassay, Citrus jambhiri
Vangassay, Citrus jambhiri
Citrus vangasay Bojer

Vangassay (Vangasay, Vangasaille) is a tree with lemon-like fruit.

"Height: Fairly tall, grows to at least 3 m, growth rate is above average

Growing habit: Somewhat open growth with medium foliage, fairly thorny with medium length thorns

Leaf: purplish yellow-green new growth, about 9 cm X 4.5 cm, slightly crenellated edges, elliptical, no petioles, aromatic when crushed

Flower: purplish before opening, white petals

Fruit: Globose, orange when ripe, somewhat bumpy or pitted rind, no neck, vestigial nipple that disappears with maturity, 5 cm, acidity/taste similar to Eureka lemon, aromatic with somewhat unpleasant taste/aroma, not a very good substitute for a lemon, 9-11 segments, orange, firm flesh, half dozen or so seeds, holds on the tree but dries out inside and gets puffy, somewhat adherent fairly thick rind (about 1/2 cm), thin white albedo, purplish when young, prolific bearer."

The above description and the photographs were given by Gene Lester who grows this tree in Central California.

The exact history of Vangassay is unknown, but it is botanically considered to be a variety of Rough lemon, which has genetically proven to be a cross of citron and mandarin.

ENG Vangasay lemon
FRA Citron Vangasaille
Photo   (1-2) © Jorma Koskinen
(3-4) © Gene Lester

LAT Citrus × jambhiri  'Liudmila' Ichandarin 'Liudmila'
Ichandarin 'Liudmila'
Ichandarin 'Liudmila'
Ichandarin 'Liudmila'
Ichandarin 'Liudmila'


This plant was originally included in the Papeda section as an Ichandarin hybrid. On closer inspection and after consulting a citrus specialist at the UC Riverside Gene Lester has come to the conclusion that because of the sweet edible rind and the vestigial petioles it is  more likely to be a citron hybrid and thus closer to Rough lemon. The source plant is in a back yard in Redwood City, CA and 'Liudmila' can also be a runaway rootstock hybrid.

The plant grows in the Gene Lester citrus collection in California and was named after a friend. It is a beautiful and productive ornamental with a dense shiny foliage of large leaves and plentiful fruit that hang singly or in clusters of 3 to 9.

The flower buds show a hint of purple when quite immature but the flowers have no purple shade. It is also unusual in that new growth is yellowish green.

The friend who gave this plant to Gene says the peel is edible. It lacks the typical acrid oils of most papeda peels. The fruit and taste are quite similar to yuzu but whereas yuzu drops its fruit quite early the fruit of 'Liudmila' stay on for a long time. In the present writer's opinion it is an ideal compact citrus plant for the dooryard and perfect as a pure ornamental.

Jorma Koskinen
04 August 2014

Photo    © Jorma Koskinen


LAT Citrus × jambhiri ’Lemandarin’ Citrus limonia 'Kona lime'
Citrus limonia 'Kona lime'
Syn Citrus × limonia  Osbeck
Citrus limonelloides  Hayata
Citrus limon  x  Citrus reticulata
or the Mandarin lemon belongs to a group of several closely related types of citrus trees. All are crosses of lemon and mandarin. They resemble the mandarin in appearance but taste more like limes.
The mandarin lemon has three well-known varieties Rangpur, Otaheite and Kusaie.

They are discussed in limes under >
Mandarin lime.

ENG Lemandarin
FRA Lemandarine
I TA Lemandarina
Photos The mandarin lime in the pictures is a Hawaiian variety called 'Kona lime' © Ken Love /

LAT Citrus × jambhiri  ’Lemonange’ Meyer lemon
Syn Citrus limon x Citrus sinensis
Lemonanges are hybrids of lemon and orange. The most commonly cultivated variety is the Meyer lemon, see below. In the picture there are Meyer lemons in varying stages of growth. When fully mature it aquires a reddish hue to its flesh.

ENG Lemonange
FRA Lemonange
Photo The picture is of Improved Meyer Lemon, UCR, also an orange lemon hybrid. © Jorma  Koskinen

LAT Citrus × jambhiri  'Meyer'    Meyer lemon
Meyer lemon
Meyer lemon
Meyer lemon

Giant Meyer lemon
A giant Meyer lemon
Syn Citrus meyerii  Yu Tanaka
Citrus limon x Citrus sinensis

Meyer Lemon
is a small to medium size orange yellow skinned citrus with a lemon like flesh that is juicy, but considerably less acidic and much sweeter than common lemons.

Discovered growing as a dooryard tree in Beijing, China in 1908 by USDA plant explorer Frank Meyer. Its history prior to that is unknown.
Its parentage is unknown. It was considered either an orange-lemon or a mandarin-lemon hybrid but it is now considered a sweet orange × limonia cross.

The flesh, juice and taste are "pinkish". The intensity of the red colour depends on climate and soil.

Fruits are eaten raw, used in making juices, desserts, and for flavoring. The Meyer lemon has become very popular in recent years for its unique lemon-like flavor, without the acidic sourness. Some people say it makes the best lemonade. You don't need to add too much sugar.

A small tree, generally only to 6-12ft. Its small size makes it a popular container plant indoors in temperate climates. The Meyer lemon can be found in many gardens throughout the southern US and in Australia. The tree produces flowers and fruit almost all year round, the main harvesting period being December- April.

Fairly cold hardy, surviving temperatures into the high 20's ( -3 C). The Meyer lemon grows well in standard citrus producing climates, but also grows in cooler areas, and areas that receive brief freezes. The original location, Beijing, can have fairly cold winter weather with occasional snow.

In spite of its popularity and unique, much-appreciated flavour, the Meyer lemon has proved unsuitable for both commercial production and industrial uses. Its soft thin skin does not tolerate transportation very well. The same reason prevents its use in food processing. The Meyer lemon remains a locally grown speciality. Being a prolific producer the fruit can sometimes be found in farmers' markets. You are lucky if you have a friend with a big tree or two.

ENG Meyer lemon, Grant lemon
FRA Citron Meyer
GER Meyer Zitrone
Photo   © Jorma Koskinen  (1-3)
© Gene Lester (4)

LAT Citrus × jambhiri  'Improved Meyer'   Improved Meyer lemon
Improved Meyer lemon

The Improved Meyer Lemon is marketed by the UCR and CCPP programmes. It is similar to the regular Meyer lemon but because the original importations from China were asymptomatic carriers of the Tristeza virus the Citrus Clonal Protection Program has made a vrirus free clone of the original Meyer lemon available to the public.

ENG Improved Meyer lemon
FRA Citron Meyer amelioré
Photo   © Joe Real

LAT Citrus × jambhiri  'Snow lemon'
Snow lemon, Citrus kulu
Snow lemonSnow lemon
Syn Citrus kulu (?)  'Snow lemon'
  Snow lemon has been described as Japanese Kulu lemon Citrus kulu (?). It has sparse foliage, and there are very many long spines. The flavor of the fruit is lemon-like, and it is juicy. Ripe fruit is yellow, but the color turns to pale orange as it gets over-ripe.

If you have more information on the Snow (Kulu) lemon we would be happy to hear from you. Please send e-mail to Citrus Pages.
ENG Japanese Snow lemon, Kulu lemon
Photo   © Gene Lester

LAT Citrus × junos 'Yuzu' Siebold ex Tanaka      Yuzu lemon
Yuzu, Citrus junos
Yuzu, Citrus junos
Yuzu, Citrus junos
Yuzu, Citrus junos
Citrus cavaleriei × Citrus sunki Tanaka


lemon was earlier classified as a valid species Citrus junos but research has shown it to be a cross of the Ichang papeda Citrus cavaleriei and Sour mandarin Citrus sunki. However, its mostly lemon-like uses in the kitchen make a case for it being included here among lemons.

The fragrant yuzu lemon orginates from China, but is mostly grown in Japan where both the juice and the grated rind are used in traditional Japanese cooking. The aroma is pungent and the dried peel is used as a spice. The fruit is used in a ritualistic New Year ceremony to ensure good health.

Chinese cultivated varieties include: Wangcang, Xiecheng, Yuzu, Zhenchen

Wikipedia has a good article on Yuzu lemon describing its uses in Japanese and Korean cuisines.

ENG Yuzu lemon
FRA Citron yuzu
Photos   (1-2) © Jorma Koskinen
(3-4) © Laaz

LAT Citrus longilimon  Tanaka      Assam lemon
Assam lemon, Citrus longilimon
Assam lemon, Citrus longilimon
Assam lemon, Citrus longilimon
Assam lemon, Citrus longilimon

lemon originates from Assam region of India. It is a long cylindrical lemon often used as a lime when it is still green. The skin is smooth and the color ranges from green to yellow. Its length goes from 5 cm to 10 cm. The flesh is pale green and very juicy. The juice is mild acidic, somewhat sweet with a lime flavor.

Local name: Kazi nemu.

ENG Assam lemon, Long-fruited lemon, Oblong lemon
FRA Citron des Indes à fruit long, Citron d'Assam
Photos   (1-4) © Saowanee Citrus Nursery

For the classification of lemons and lemon hybrids see: Botanical names of lemons  and Citrus classification

Updated 20 March 2021

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