About Citrus Pages
© Gene Lester
© Joe Real
lemon © Laaz
Shasta Gold mandarin
© Jorma Koskinen
started Citrus Pages in 2006. I was looking for information on the
Internet about the most common citrus types with representative
each variety. I found a lot of information on many sites but I missed a
comprehensive approach arranged by groups and species combined with
decent photographs. I could not find one. I thought long about creating
my own site but the crucial thing was how to obtain good pictures. I
wanted my site to differ from so many other citrus sites by having at
least one photo of each variety, more if
Before starting I wrote to some of
the biggest citrus research centres and universities around the world,
presented my plan and asked if they would agree to provide pictures for
my non-commercial site. I promised I would credit the organisation or
the copyright under each picture. To my surprise many agreed.
of them are listed on the Photos & links page.
first plan was to include the most common edible citrus fruits only,
around 200 varieties. The plan was completed early 2007 and I
happy with it. I soon received e-mail where people were
about the site but asked questions like: "Why no kumquats?", "Where are
the Australian citrus?" I gave a deep sigh and was again
with the same problem. I have enough information but no
photos. Another round of e-mail went out and again I received many
replies. By early 2008 this site found its present form, then with
citrus varieties and included further groups like Papedas and
Trifoliate orange with other rootstock.
Thanks to research
centres like INRA Corsica, University of California Riverside, Texas
A&M University and many citrus growers and enthusiasts like
Lester, Joe Real and Laaz in
the United States and Mike Saalfeld and Petr Broža in Europe I have
many new high definition photographs. Citrus Pages has several citrus
varieties of which there previously was no information or
photo available on the Internet.
a four-week visit in January 2010 to central California where I was a
house guest of Gene Lester I now have a collection of 6000 citrus photographs
of which over 3000 are new pictures of my own. Gene took me to the UC
Lindcove Citrus Research Station with its collection of several hundred
citrus types and to many smaller growers and private gardens. It
took me a week in Gene's own orchard alone to take pictures of his
400+ citrus trees of nearly 200 different citrus types, which form the
largest private collection of citrus varieties. I shall now be able to
slowly go through the over 1500 pictures on Citrus Pages and replace
the oldest small pictures with bigger and technically better newer ones.
together the citrus family is the largest group of commercially grown
come second, with grapes in third place. Citrus Pages
now also include Kumquats, Papedas, and Native
citrus as well as Trifoliate orange and other rootstock. More distant
citrus relatives also
have a page. There are 310 varieties
with a short description and a photograph. About 90 closely related
cultivars are mentioned
the 310 citrus types 131 have been assigned a botanical name
time or another. The botanical
index lists approximately 270
names for them, each with its respective author.
A little bit of history
The true story of the arrival of citrus to the West.
Citrons were grown in
Mesopotamia as early as 4000 B.C. Most
citrus types originated in the large areas of temperate climate around
the Himalayas or in south-east Asia. The first
mention of citrus fruit is found in Sanskrit literature around
B.C. The cultivation of citrus fruit presumably began in China around
The first citrus brought to Europe was the citron,
which came with the army of Alexander the Great in 325 B.C.
The citron was first used as a perfume and an insecticide and was later
to be edible when properly prepared. The Romans imported
lemons from their provinces as expensive luxuries for their
plants they grew in Rome survived but bore few fruit. There are
recognisable images of citrus fruit on the murals in Pompeii, which was
destroyed by a volcano in 79 A.D.
After the Romans citriculture in Europe fell into oblivion for
centuries. It is a common mistake repeated in a lot of citrus
literature that the first citrus fruit were brought to Europe by the
crusaders returning from Jerusalem in the 11th and 12th centuries. It
was the Arab conquerors who brought many cultural novelties, citrus
them, to southern Europe with their Holy War as early as the late
8th century. After they conquered southern Spain around 711
A.D. the Khalifs of Cordoba started building the then biggest
mosque in the world, the Mezquita of Cordoba in what they called Al-Andaluz. The building was completed in 987 when the famous Patio de los naranjos, the
courtyard of oranges also took its final form. The Caliphs of
Cordoba were very fond of sour orange trees and ordered them to be
planted in the most prominent public spaces of the most important
towns. This was the type that later
became the Standard sour orange or Seville orange.
Lemon and lime soon followed and after the conquest of Sicily we know
that all three fruits were grown on the island in the year 1002 A.D.
The crusaders did bring citrus fruit to the northern side of the
Mediterranean. They re-introduced the citron and also brought the lemon
and a type of sour orange that we now know as the bittersweet orange.
This is the type that first reached America and the royal courts
of Europe. The great voyages of
not only enlarged our view of the world but also introduced us to a
orange in the early 1500's. But it was not until 1635 that the
Portuguese planted a new type of citrus fruit they had found in China.
It was the first citrus type that could be eaten fresh, the kind that
we today know as the sweet orange, which for more than two centuries was called the Portugal orange.
On his second voyage Columbus introduced the first citrus fruits, the
bittersweet orange and lemon among them, to
November 22, 1493 on the Island of Hispaniola. First
were planted in the continental America on the coast of
on July 12, 1518. Citrus fruit spread to Florida in 1565, South
1577, Arizona in 1707 and to California in 1769. It was in Florida and
later in Paraguay where the bittersweet orange soon escaped from
orchards and became naturalized still growing wild in many areas.
The last of the common citrus fruits to arrive in Europe and the U.S. was the
late as the beginning of the 19th century. Since then it has become one
most popular citrus fruits and a source of continuous development and
The research centre of the French Institute for Agricultural Research
island of Corsica in the Mediterranean has more than 240 different
World citrus production
The total world citrus production for
the 2010/11 season is forecast at 58,3 million metric tons, 40% of
which is grown in China and consumed locally. The most recent
statistical data by country is available from the year 2009. The three
biggest producers remain the same but India has now reached the fourth
position ahead of Mexico and Spain.
|World citrus total production in 2009, mostly consumed domestically.|
||23 088 471
||1 009 956
||19 752 262
States of America
||10 740 150
||8 128 393
||7 124 577
||Republic of Korea
||5 240 100
||4 138 700
||3 769 420
||3 745 000
||3 513 771
||3 295 495
||2 200 000
||2 186 042
||2 132 000
||2 102 560
||1 763 037
||1 308 827
||1 191 250
||1 167 531
||1 092 598
| || || || |
|Source: FAOSTAT, Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations|
In 2008 the biggest citrus exporters
1. Spain, 2. South Africa, 3. United States
(oranges, grapefruit, grapefruit juice, lemons and limes),
Turkey, 5. Argentina, 6. China, 7. Mexico
The biggest citrus importers
by far are the 27 EU countries whose main EU external imports come from
South Africa, Argentina, Morocco and Turkey. After the EU the biggest importers
are 2. Russia (mainly from Egypt, Turkey, South Africa, Spain) 3. United States (orange
limes and mandarins), 4. Canada, 5.
Ukraine, 7. Hong Kong, 8.
Malaysia, 9. Switzerland
and 10. Indonesia.
(Source: USDA Foreign Agricultural Service:
Citrus World Markets and Trade, 4/2008.)
The biggest production areas of orange juice are Sao Paulo, Brazil and
Florida, US. The biggest orange juice consumers are U.S., EU,
Canada, Russia and Japan. A
new feature that has emerged in the last few decades is the year-round
availability of citrus fruit in the biggest consumer areas of
North America and Europe. Because of the development of new late
maturing cultivars the first ripe fruit of the new season are available
in South Africa, Argentina, Australia and Brazil before the
are finished in the northern hemisphere. After six months the situation
It is important
that unlike most other commercially grown fruit the majority of the
fruits (oranges, mandarins, lemons, citrons and most grapefruit)
mature during the local winter. In Europe the high season is from
November to March. Including the early and late varieties the whole
season lasts from October to May. Citrus fruit of the tropical climate
(limes, pomelos and some grapefruit types) are an exception to this.
Some pomelos can bear four crops in a year and some limes are picked
once a month throughout the year.
Description of the
Google Language Tool
division into fifteen groups in this presentation is, however, that of
the present author and takes note of recent research
using molecular analysis. Sometimes the division into
groups is determined solely by the food use of each fruit. Thus the
the lime group are not all closely related but form a
collection of several different kinds of citrus fruit that are used in
the kitchen in much the same way as limes. The same is true of
only completely homogeneous groups are pomelos, grapefruit and
sweet oranges, all of which contain cultivated varieties of only one
The botanical name
of each type is given first. The complete
scientific name of a plant
includes the name of the author,
the person who first described the
fruit and named it. Sometimes two authors are given: first the name in
brackets of the person who originally used the Latin name followed by
name of the person who later amended the description and reassigned the
name to the plant type in question. An author name is often
given as an abbreviation. Only
von Linné has an initial (L.) Where needed or available,
of the botanical name are given (example 2).
For a detailed discussion of botanical names see Which
botanical name is the correct one? on the Citrus
followed by a brief description of the fruit and its most common food
uses (example 3).
names follow, first in
English, sometimes with local variations. These are followed
by the most common names in a handful of selected languages, when
available. The author is fully aware of the enormous range of
geographical variants. The Photos
& links page has links to several sites
presenting large indices of names of citrus types and cultivated
varieties in multiple languages. At the bottom of the
pictures the copyright owner of each photograph is credited (example 4).
As a new feature from November 2009 a language selection tool is placed
the top of each page. This service is provided by Google
Translation and includes about 50 most common languages
Pages visitors. The translations are done by a
computer and are not always accurate but hopefully they make visiting
Citrus Pages easier for non-native English speakers.
abbreviations are used
. = subspecies
= synonyms, other versions of the Latin or variety name
= botanical variant
refer to a
single plant: Citrus
means that the fruit is a hybrid of
lemon and citron. An ×
also refer to a whole species: Citrus
is the Latin
name used of the grapefruit meaning that it is
a man-made hybrid (of pomelo and orange) and
such be found in nature.
The abbreviations of the selected languages are :
||some common Indian
Citrus Pages photo copyright
© Jorma Koskinen
|Citrus Pages has at present about 1500 citrus-related
photos provided by over 35 institutions and individuals, many of whom
have taken photos for this site exclusively. Photos
may be downloaded for private use only. They may not be printed or
published on other websites without prior consent of the copyright
owner. I am contractually unable
to give permission to use photos owned or taken by third parties and
requests should be addressed to the copyright owner directly. |
I can only authorize the use of my own photos and will do so for
certain non-commercial purposes. In this case a link or reference to
Citrus Pages is required and a credit to
© Jorma Koskinen
must be shown. Please send photo requests to Citrus
More information on the sources of the photographs is
on the Photos
© Jorma Koskinen
fruits is available both in printed form as well as on the Internet.
I have made an effort to ensure that
the botanical information and classifications are as correct and
up-to-date as possible.
The botanical information used on Citrus Pages is based on the
following literature and it has been amended
and up-dated by the information from the recent scientific studies
listed at the bottom:
Editors: W. Reuther, H.J. Webber, L.D. Batchelor. University of
California Press © 1967.
The magnum opus of citrus information unsurpassed in the wideness of its scope and the thoroughness with which it handles its subject matter. Now available also on the Internet.
Walter T. Swingle and Philip C. Reece: The Botany of Citrus and Its Wild Relatives. Chapter 3 of The Citrus Industry Vol 1 pp 190 - 430. Originally published in 1943 this is one of the best known taxonomic descriptions of citrus fruit. Now also available in its entirety on the Internet.
Robert Willard Hodgson: Horticultural Varieties of Citrus.Chapter 4 of The Citrus Industry.
An extensive description of both common and rare cultivated varieties
Fresh Citrus Fruits. Edited by: W.F.Wardowski, S. Nagy, W.Grierson, Macmillan UK © 1986.
Julia F. Morton: Fruits of Warm Climates, Creative Resource Syst., Inc. Miami, FL. © 1987
A thorough presentation of commercially important citrus types and their history, cultivation and food uses. Available on the Internet.
Citrus of the World, A citrus directory, SRA - INRA - CIRAD © 2002.
A catalogue of more than 5500 citrus names, classified by botanical, common and cultivar names. Includes a useful comparison of Swingle and Tanaka terminology listing equivalent names of both.
D.J. Mabberley: The Plant-Book, Second edition, Oxford University Press © 1997.
D.J. Mabberley: The Plant-Book, Third edition, Cambridge University Press UK © 2008.
James Saunt: Citrus Varieties of the World, Second edition, Sinclair UK © 2000, 160 pp.
Tom McClendon: Hardy Citrus for the South East, Second edition, Southeastern Palm Society © 2006, 33 pp.
Michel Courbouleuz: Les agrumes, Rustica éditions, Paris © 2005, 119 pp.
Martin Page: Growing citrus, the essential gardener's guide,Timber Press, London © 2008, 192 pp.
Bernhard Voss: Zitruspflanzen, Kosmos, Stuttgart © 2009, 77 pp.
Bénédict et Michel Bachès: Agrumes, Ulmer, Paris, nouvelle édition augmentée © 2011, 128 pp.
University of California, Riverside Citrus
Variety Collection, Citrus
A presentation of the most important common varieties at the UCR
University of California, Riverside CCPP Citrus Clonal Protection Program, Variety data.
A presentation of the holdings of the CCPP citrus variety collection with the relevant data.
Répartition des variétés par espèces. Station de recherche agronomique SRA-INRA Corse.
Détails des variétés par espèces. Station de recherche agronomique SRA-INRA Corse.
These two large databases detail the holdings of the INRA Citrus Research Station in Corsica, France.
A classification for edible Citrus
D.J. Mabberley, Rijksherbarium, University of Leiden, Netherlands
Royal BotanicGardens, Mrs Macquaries Road, Sydney, NSW 2000, Australia (1997) Telopea 7(2): 167-172.
RFLP analysis of the origin of Citrus bergamia, Citrus jambhiri, and Citrus limonia.
Federici, C.T., Roose, M.L. and Scora, R.W. 2000. Acta Hort. (ISHS) 535:55-64.
Citrus phylogeny and genetic origin of important species as investigated by E. Nicolosi, Z. N. Deng, A. Gentile, S. La Malfa, G. Continella and E. Tribulato
Instituto di Coltivazioni arboree, University of Catania, Italy. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 100(8): 1155-1166.
Australian Citreae with notes on other Aurantioideae (Rutaceae)
D.J.Mabberley, Rijksherbarium, University of Leiden, Netherlands and Royal Botanic Gardens,
Mrs Macquaries Road, Sydney, NSW 2000, Australia (1998) Telopea 7(4):333-344.
CITRUS Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 782. 1753.
Zhang Dianxiang, David J. Mabberley, Fl. China 11:90-96. 2008.
Chemical constituents of essential oils from the rutaceae family
M. A. Nor Azah, J. Abdul Majid, S. Abu Said , M. Z. Zaridah Z. Mohd. Faridz
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM).
characterization and genetic diversity among
Japanese acid citrus based on RAPD markers
A. Asadi Abkenar and S. Isshiki 2002. Laboratory of Biotechnology and Plant Breeding, Saga University, Japan.
Journal of Horticultural Science Biotechnology (2003) 78(1) 108-112.
Native Australian Citrus - wild species, cultivars and hybrids
Primary Industries and Resources, Government of South Australia (PIRSA) FS No: 7/03.
The International Plant Names Index(IPNI) database of authors.
Assessment of polyembryony in lemon: rescue and in vitro culture of immature embryos
O. Pérez-Tornero and I. Porras.
Instituto Murciano de Investigación y Desarrollo Agrario y Alimentario, C/ Mayor s/n, 30150 Murcia, Spain.
Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 2008, 93: 173-180.
Polyembryony in Citrus
Accumulation of Seed Storage Proteins in Seeds and in Embryos Cultured in Vitro
Anna M. Koltunow, Tetsushi Hidaka and Simon P. Robinson
Plant Physiol. (1 996) 11 O: 599-609.
Marker enrichment and construction of haplotype-specific BAC contigs for the polyembryony genomic region in Citrus
Michiharu Nakano, Tokurou Shimizu, Hiroshi Fujii, Takehiko Shimada, Tomoko Endo, Hirohisa Nesumi, Takeshi Kuniga and Mitsuo Omura.
Breeding Science Vol. 58 (2008) , No. 4 375-383.
Polyembryony and identification of Volkamerian lemon zygotic and nucellar seedlings using RAPD
María Andrade-Rodríguez, Angel Villegas-Monter, Guillermo Carrillo-Castañeda, and Armando García-Velázquez.
Pesq. agropec. bras., Brasília, v.39, n.6, p.551-559, jun. 2004.
Citrus Pages are optimised for a minimum screen resolution width of 1280 pixels on Google Chrome and Firefox.
On narrower screen settings photos may not coincide with the text.
Comments and suggestions are welcome.